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Unit 5

The Sign for S

     46.  The signs for s, written downward, are taken from a small elliptical figure, thus: Small elliptical figure

Memory aid:  Way to remember that the s strokes stand for s.

     The right-motion s is called "right sComma s
     The left-motion s is called "left s"      left s

     47.  In practical writing the sound of z is expressed by the sign for s, since no confusion arises from using the same character from both sounds in connected writing.  We already are accustomed to writing and reading s for z in English, as in rays, praise.
     It is seldom necessary to make a distinction between s and z, but when it is, a short dash is struck at a right angle to the sign for s to show that it has the sound of z, thus:

Use of tick to indicate voicing of s.

     48.  The base of the first consonant of a word rests on the line or writing, but when s precedes another consonant, the base of the consonant following the s is placed on the line.

     49.  Initial and Final S.  1. Before and after p, b, r, and l, and after t, d, n, m, and o, the left s is used:

sips, phrase, daze, etc.

     2. In all other cases the right s is used:

saves, seeds, sashes, etc.

     A circle placed outside the angle in any of these joinings does not change the motion.

50. Frequent Word Drill

sell, spell, salary, sale, spread, self, piece, spare, trace, pass, space, dress, base, less, class, etc.

     51. S Between Strokes.  When a circle vowel immediately precedes s between strokes, treat the s as belonging to the preceding consonant; if the circle follows the s, the s should be treated as if it belonged to the following consonant; when s occurs between strokes and is not joined to a circle, writ the s with the syllable to which it belongs:

S between strokes

     52. The Ses Sign.  The ses sound as heard in faces, basis, races, cases, census, etc., is expressed by joining the two s signs as a blend:

Use of the ses stroke

     Note: In rapid writing, the first s in ses may become obscure, and yet the second s, being written contrary to the rule for writing a single s, clearly indicates the plural form.  Compare the following:

Examples of how ses clearly indicates the second s.

53. Brief Forms for Common Words

Brief forms

     *The sign for the prefix under written above a following character is used for the word under.

     54.  The suffix thing is expressed by a dot in the following words:

Use of dot to indicate thing.

     55. Plurals of Brief Forms.   The plurals of brief forms ending in s are formed by adding another s of the same motion, thus:

Brief form plurals - causes, businesses

     There are four exceptions to this rule.  The brief forms force, course, invoice, and office—which you will learn later—use the ses blend to express their plurals.

     In other brief forms the plurals are formed by adding s to the singular forms, thus:

parts, changes, ships, forms

56.  Reading and Dictation Practice

Reading and Dictation Practice

Transcription Key to this Unit
- Next Unit -

About Gregg Shorthand
Editor's Note
A Talk with the Beginner
The Alphabet
Chapter I
   Unit 1
   Unit 2
   Unit 3
Chapter II
   Unit 4
   Unit 5
   Unit 6
Chapter III
   Unit 7
   Unit 8
   Unit 9
Chapter IV
   Unit 10
   Unit 11
   Unit 12
Chapter V
   Unit 13
   Unit 14
   Unit 15
Chapter VI
   Unit 16
   Unit 17
   Unit 18
Chapter VII
   Unit 19
   Unit 20
   Unit 21
Chapter VIII
   Unit 22
   Unit 23
   Unit 24
Chapter IX
   Unit 25
   Unit 26
   Unit 27
Chapter X
   Unit 28
   Unit 29
   Unit 30
Chapter XI
   Unit 31
   Unit 32
   Unit 33
Chapter XII
   Unit 34
   Unit 35
   Unit 36


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